The Blitz (September 7, 1940–May 11, 1941), bombing campaign undertaken by Nazi Germany against Britain during World War II. By war's end, Germany and the United States had employed various proto-smart weapons in combat, including radio, radar, and television-guided bombs and missiles, against targets ranging from industrial sites to bridges and enemy shipping. American forces employed a total of 622 precision munitions, consisting of 567 laser-guided bombs, 42 electro-optical or infrared-guided weapons, and 13 Tomahawk Land Attack cruise missiles. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Air Force website https://www.af.mil. The need to destroy precision targets such as bridges had driven development of rudimentary guided bombs in the Second World War, and Korea accelerated this interest. Precision bombing refers to the attempted aerial bombing of a target with some degree of accuracy, with the aim of limiting collateral damage.An example would be destroying a single building in a built up area causing minimal damage to the surroundings. Since most of their early targets were in France and within U.S. fighter range, the Eighth Air Force bombers had fighter support on many of their raids, and the Luftwaffe had not yet been trained to attack mass formations of B-17s. Altogether, 82 of the 291 original bombers that left England were lost, more than 28 percent of the entire force assigned to the raid. When the war began on 1 September 1939, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the neutral United States, issued an appeal to the major belligerents to confine their air raids to military targets. Indeed, it can be argued that, at best, defensive measures have kept up with the threat, not surpassed it. The British initiated their own strategic bombing campaign against Germany in late 1939. American airmen dropped only 12 "dumb" bombs. Therefore, the air forces turned to area bombardment, which killed civilians. But despite such corrective measures, the problems posed by newer generations of weapons continue to confront naval planners in the present day. What was average creep back? Posts: 55 Joined: 12/28/2013 Status: offline: I have A24 Banshees, B-26's and Beaufighters attempting to go after Japanese ships in Salamaua. Petroleum targets and transportation systems dropped down the priority list, while submarine targets remained close to the top. Despite radar detection and cuing, airborne interception and attrition, and massive anti-aircraft barrages, a distressing 14 percent of Kamikazes survived to score a hit on a ship; nearly 8.5 percent of all ships hit by Kamikazes sank. ‘If the superior speed of the bomber was such to make interception improbable, or at worst, infrequent, then no provision need be made for escort fighters to accompany the bombers on their long range missions,’ said one modern analyst of the 1930s air doctrine. After more raids against Luftwaffe airfields, the Eighth Air Force made another massive effort the next month. A solution came with a change of emphasis in air doctrine. Edvard Munch, Norwegian artist (The Scream). The remaining precision munitions consisted of specialized air-to-surface missiles such as the Maverick and the Hellfire, as well as cruise missiles, anti-radar missiles, and assorted small numbers of special weapons. Combined statistics of American[clarification needed] and NATO experience indicate that the average number of precision weapons per designated mean point of impact (DMPI) destroyed was 2.8. In October 1943, the U.S. Eighth Air Force’s losses became critical, forcing a reappraisal of the American daylight bombing Strategy. Kind of frustrating. For the U.S. Army Air Forces, daylight bombing was normal based upon box formations for defence from fighters. Eaker placed highest priority on attacks on the German aircraft industry, especially fighter assembly plants, engine factories, and ball bearing manufacturers. On September 9, 1943, a German Fritz-X radio-guided glide bomb dropped from a Dornier Do 217 bomber sank the modern Italian battleship Roma as it steamed towards Gibraltar. Over the next year, the Eighth Air Force leadership struggled to build a bomber force capable of inflicting serious damage on the Germans. Postwar analysis indicated that Iraq's ability to move supplies from Baghdad to the Kuwaiti theater of operations had dropped from a total potential capacity of 216,000 metric tons per day over six main routes (including a rail line) to only 20,000 metric tons per day over only two routes, about 90 percent reduction in capacity; all others (including the railroad) had essentially been destroyed. Dispersal of industry, ongoing repair and expansion compensated for additional bombing losses. Between October 8 and 14, 1943, the Eighth Air Force flew 1,342 heavy bomber sorties, losing a total of 152 bombers (11.3 percent), with another 6 percent receiving heavy damage. 24 acoustic homing torpedo that subsequently seriously damaged U-456, driving it to the surface where it was subsequently sunk by convoy escort vessels. Pathfinder Bombing Accuracy. Operations Analysis in the U.S. Army Eighth Air Force in World War II By Charles W. McArthur By Dr, Tuttle's USAAF Report 11 July 1943 - (Geoffrey Tuttle. Of the 35 aircrews that arrived in England with the 100th Bomb Group at the end of May 1943, only 14 percent of the men made it through the 25 missions required for rotation. With the arrival of the first P-51Bs in England in the late fall of 1943 and the rapid development and refitting of wing and belly tanks, American bombers would enjoy escort cover to 600 miles, a range sufficient to reach Berlin. Unused / unissued material - Poor shots.Various aerial shots of bombs exploding on ground. Of those, 45 fell to fighters and flak. The disappointing Korean bridge-bombing experience stimulated the Navy to pursue development of the postwar Bullpup program, the first mass-produced air-to-surface guided missile. By the time of the Gulf War, the capabilities of "smart" aeroplanes dropping unguided bombs from low altitudes were sufficient to place an munition within 30 feet (9.1 m) of a target. It took 108 B-17 bombers, crewed by 1,080 airmen, dropping 648 bombs to guarantee a 96 percent chance of getting just two hits inside a 400 x 500 ft (150 m) German power-generation plant. The Kamikaze was the deadliest aerial anti-shipping threat faced by Allied surface warfare forces in the war. Precision has always been recognized as an important attribute of weapon development. This was the world’s first 4-engine long range heavy bomber and was developed during the 1930s by Boeing for the United States Army Air Forces. This single 500 lb (230 kg) general-purpose bomb represented one quarter of one percent of the 376 bombs dropped over Yawata on that mission. If air power was to show its capabilities as an equal partner to ground and naval forces, it would be done through the successes of strategic bombing. With fighters that could fly beyond the Rhine, protect bomber formations and sweep ahead to engage the Luftwaffe interceptors, the Eighth Air Force formations reversed the loss ratio with the German fighter force. Bombing, States and Peoples in Western Europe 1940-1945 The Bombing of Germany 1940 - 1945 Allied air-strikes and civil mood in Germany. During the practice missions there was reportedly very little difference in bombing accuracy. Night-time raids dramatically reduced accuracy and it became impossible for pilots to concentrate on bombing military targets. Stripped of some of its bombers and fighters due to the North African Campaign, Operation Pointblank opened with attacks on targets in Western Europe. On that Thursday, the United States Eighth Air Force mounted Mission No. As the commander in chief of the American air service, General Arnold surrounded himself with “bomber men,” disciples of daylight strategic precision bombing. Chief among this new generation of bomber advocates in the late 1930s was the leader of the Army Air Corps, General Henry “Hap” Arnold. The German planes then became targets for the well-trained Mustang and Thunderbolt pilots. The rest were dead, wounded, missing, psychological cases or prisoners of war. The Germans had a spy in the Norden factory. Also 617 couldnt de-calibrate them. During the entire month of October, the Eighth lost a total of 214 heavy bombers, almost 10 percent of the total number dispatched. Accompanying this interest in Anti-Surface Warfare, was an equivalent drive to develop precision air-to-surface and surface-to-surface weapons for antishipping roles. Only one plane actually hit the target area, and only with one of its bombs. This activity by Ian Luff is one of those thought-provoking activities – growing up in the 50s and 60s I knew about Lancaster bombers and the Dambusters but what thoughts I had were about the courage needed to take part in raids. . Land, sea and air attacks intensified. In Korea, Air Force B-29's dropped the Razon and the much larger and more powerful Tarzon guided bombs on North Korean bridges, destroying at least 19 of them. Precision bombing was initially tried by both the Allied and Central Powers during World War I, however it was found to be ineffective because the technology did not allow for sufficient accuracy. In addition, the Eighth Air Force changed target priorities because the Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff demanded that it bomb U-boat pens and construction yards. These systems could provide an accuracy of about 100 yards radius, and were supplemented by the downward-looking radar system H2S. Some airforces soon found that daylight bombing resulted in heavy losses since fighter interception became easy and switched to night bombing. British Handley Page Halifax, Avro Lancaster, and Vickers Wellington bombers waded through the night skies to burn Germany’s cities with incendiary payloads. Once in place, the Eighth Air Force pursued a policy of high-altitude daylight precision bombing against specific target systems—aircraft factories, electric power, transportation and oil supplies—in an attempt to destroy Germany’s ability to wage war. The bombs destroyed some of the factory complexes, but the Luftwaffe destroyed or damaged much of the bomber force. John Osbourne, playwright and film producer (Look Back in Anger). Convinced of the effectiveness of strategic bombing, the Army Air Forces asked for and received permission to build a huge bomber force on truly a Douhetian scale. Air attacks by F-15E's and Marine A-6 Intruders in the easternmost section of the theater averaged over thirty artillery pieces or armored vehicles destroyed per night. Testing all its reforms in early February 1944, the Eighth Air Force mounted a third Schweinfurt raid and lost only 11 out of 231 bombers, while three other raids sent 600 bombers against Germany with minimal losses. It influenced the purchase of the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, as well as more advanced airborne and surface early warning radars and fire control systems, and new gun and surface-to-air missile systems. French, British, and American gunships destroyed numerous Iraqi mechanized vehicles. Two premises of daylight strategic bombing—that bombers would be able to get through enemy defenses and back without escorts, and that destroying the enemy’s industrial base would cripple its war effort—appeared to be greatly mistaken. During WWII with engine power as a major limitation, ... As the effectiveness of a bomber was dependent on the weight and accuracy of its bomb load, ever larger bombers were developed starting in World War I, while considerable money was spent developing suitable bombsights. The advent of routine around-the-clock precision bombing of enemy forces in the Gulf War constituted a new phase in the history of air warfare. From August 30 through September 14, 1995, for the first time in its history, NATO forces engaged in air combat operations, against Bosnian Serb forces in the former Yugoslavia during the Bosnian War. I keep sending them in and they keep getting shot down and none of them can hit anything? The first premise centered on a belief of Arnold and his bomber disciples that their heavy bombers would ‘always get through’ without escort and destroy or neutralize enemy industry. He saw promise in a concept suggested by Word, who drew on earlier research by the Army for laser guidance of missiles. Local air superiority belonged to the Allies for the opening of the second front. The Royal Air Force responded by carrying out night-raids on Germany. The changes produced a revision of Operation Pointblank and a doctrine that emphasized destroying the Luftwaffe in a war of attrition in order to gain air superiority for the coming D-Day invasion in the summer of 1944. 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